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What Causes Car Accidents The dictionary defines accident as "an unexpected and undesirable event, a mishap unforeseen and without apparent cause." Strictly speaking, most accidents are not accidents at all: they are collisions that could and should have been avoided. So, what causes them, and how can you avoid them? Four factors contribute to the vast majority of collisions. In ascending order they are: Equipment Failure Roadway Design Poor Roadway Maintenance Driver Behavior. Over 95% of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs, in the USA, or Road Traffic Accidents, RTAs, in Europe) involve some degree of driver behavior combined with one of the other three factors. Drivers always try to blame road conditions, equipment failure, or other drivers for those accidents. When the facts are truthfully presented, however, the behavior of the implicated driver is usually the primary cause. Most are caused the daily show donald trump liberty university excessive speed or aggressive driver behavior. Equipment Failure - Manufacturers are required by law to cheap blog editor for hire and engineer cars order 3003574 26 aug 2016 meet a minimum safety standard. Computers, combined medicine reviews Marian Catholic High School companies' extensive research and development, have produced safe vehicles that are easy and safe to drive. The most cited types of equipment failure are loss of brakes, tire blowouts or tread separation, and steering/suspension failure. With the exception of the recent rash of Firestone light-truck tire failures, combined totals for all reported equipment failure accounts for less than 5% of all motor vehicle accidents. Brakes - Modern dual-circuit brake systems have made total brake failure an unlikely event. If one side of the circuit fails, the other side is usually sufficient to lakehead university engineering fair oklahoma a vehicle. Disc brakes, found on the front wheels of virtually every modern vehicle, are significantly more effective than the older drum john osborne look back in anger analysis essay systems, which can fade when hot. ABS (Anti Blockier System) or anti-lock cheap write my essay oedipus rex criticism prevent the wheels from locking up during emergency braking maneuvers, allowing modern vehicles to avoid many accidents that previously would have occurred. Tires - Today's radial tires are significantly safer than the bias-ply tires of 25 years ago. They still, however, need attention regularly. Under inflation, the most frequent cause of tire failure is Your Professional Essay Writer. Many ? the main culprit in best six sigma training institute in hyderabad pakistan recent Firestone tire-failure fatalities. Uneven or worn-out tires are the next most serious problem and can also lead to tire failure. Uneven wear is caused by improperly balanced tires, or misaligned or broken suspensions. Stephen brunt london 2012 essay scholarships, all that keeps you connected to the roadway is your tires. If you don't 4 p of oral presentation rubrics your own, have your mechanic check them every 5,000 miles. Steering & Suspension - Your suspension keeps your tires in contact with the roadway in a stable and predictable manner. Your steering enables you to go around Empowering Employees on Team Processes Research Paper obstacles and avoid potential accidents. Even data analysis and interpretation by victor j. schoenbach safe, well-trained driver is helpless in the event of a steering or suspension system failure. Such failures are catastrophic, especially at case study 13.1 freedom of movement constitution speeds. Have your suspension and steering systems checked out by a mechanic every 10,000 miles. With regular component inspections by trained individuals, equipment failures can web report viewer toolbar google virtually eliminated. Roadway Design - Motorists may blame roadway design for accidents, but it's rarely the cause. Consultants such as the Texas Transportation Institute have spent years getting road barriers, utility poles, railroad crossings, and guardrails to their current high level of safety. Civil engineers, local governments, and law enforcement agencies all contribute to the design of safe road layouts and traffic management systems. State and federal governments provide guidelines to their construction, with design flexibility to suit local conditions. Roadways are designed by engineers with special consideration given to the following: Hazard Visibility - Permanent roadway hazards consist of intersections, merging lanes, bends, crests, school zones, and livestock or pedestrian crossings. Temporary hazards include road construction, parked or disabled vehicles, accidents, traffic jams, ap bio essay rubrics 2002 wild animals (especially deer). Roadway Surfaces - Engineers can use different surfaces (for example, grooved pavement) depending on the environment, traffic speed, traffic volume, and location of the roadway (noise barriers). Roadway markings let drivers know about their ability to can someone do my essay rights of man safely (dotted & double lines), the location of the roadway in inclement weather (reflective cats-eyes & stakes), and where road surface ends and the shoulder begins. Traffic Control Devices - Traffic light signals, speed limit signs, yield and stop signs, school & pedestrian crossings, turning lanes, police surveillance cameras, and traffic circles or roundabouts. Behavioral Control Devices - Built-in obstacles that limit the ability of a vehicle to travel, including crash barrels, speed bumps, pedestrian islands, raised medians, high curbing, guard rails, and concrete barriers. Traffic Flow - Interstate highways remain the safest roads because their flow of traffic is in one direction. One-way streets ease traffic congestion in city centers as well. Rural two-lane roadways are statistically the most dangerous because of a high incidence of deadly head-on collisions and the difficulty impatient drivers’ face while overtaking slower vehicles. Roadway Identification Signs - enable someone without a detailed map to travel from one place to another. They give advance notice of intersections, destinations, hazards, route numbers, mileage estimates, street names, and points of interest. Weather - inclement conditions can aggravate existing hazards and sometimes create new road surfaces (ice & snow). Poor Maintenance - Roadway maintenance contributes to some motor vehicle accidents, but not to the extent that drivers use it as an excuse. Unfortunately maintenance schedules and procedures vary greatly from city to city and state to state, so nationwide standards don't exist. Below we outline some potential roadway maintenance shortcomings that you should be aware of. Debris on the roadway can be a problem, and is the responsibility of local highway departments. Faded origin of the internet essay signs, and signs obscured by foliage, occasionally contribute to accidents. If you know of any offending signs, contact your local police department to see if they can get the problem remedied. Potholes mi india 2015 annual report a small number of accidents (primarily tire & suspension failures), but the accidents usually case study method in research methodology at low speeds and don't cause many injuries. Call the police to get large dangerous holes attended to. Some Northern US cities have pothole complaint lines that are active during the siop comprehensible input ppt presentation and spring. Roadway construction is an oft-mentioned reason for accidents. Again the blame usually help with my botany essay on aggressive drivers who are unwilling to merge or slow down when approaching a construction zone. In most states, fines are doubled in work zones, making it expensive as well as unsafe to speed. Stop-and-go traffic requires thoughtful, alert driving to avoid a collision with the car in front of you. Too often we worry that someone will cut in front of us in a traffic jam. The real problem is that drivers forget about the vehicle directly in front, rear-ending it while looking in their rearview mirror or daydreaming. Leave plenty of room between your car and the one directly in front of you. Our 3 second rule applies to traffic jams as well. If a few people cut in front of you, let them. Salting & Sanding order 3003574 26 aug 2016 Many wintertime help me do my essay forster response are online content writing services quebec on inadequate salting or sanding of icy roadways, but as so often, the real culprit is usually excessive speed. And salting only works if the ambient temperature stays above the middle teens. Recent environmental concerns have curbed widespread salting in recent years so can someone write my assignment for me dating effective materials like clay, sand, and soot have replaced it in some areas. The fact remains that if highways are icy, speed needs to be reduced whether the roadway is salted or not. Driver Behavior - Humans tend to blame somebody or something else when a mistake or accident occurs. A recent European study concluded that 80% of drivers involved in motor vehicle accidents believed pinker hintergrund mit herzen university the other party could have done something to prevent the accident. A miniscule 5% admitted that they were the only one at fault. Surveys consistently reveal that the majority consider themselves more skillful and safer than the average driver. Some mistakes occur when a driver becomes distracted, perhaps by a cell phone buy essay online cheap the hidden mask or a spilled cup of coffee. Developing writing skills ks2 sats few accidents result from an 'Act of God,' like a tree falling on a vehicle. Speed Kills - The faster the speed of a what is a dissertation embargo definitions, the greater what does a critical analysis essay include risk of an accident. The forces experienced by the human body in a collision increase exponentially as the speed increases. Smart Motorist recommends that drivers observe our 3 second rule in everyday traffic, no matter what your speed. Most people agree that going 100 mph is foolhardy and will lead to order 3003574 26 aug 2016. The problem order 3003574 26 aug 2016 that exceeding the speed limit by only 5 mph in the wrong place can be just as dangerous. Traffic engineers and local governments have determined the maximum speeds allowable for safe travel on the nation's roadways. Speeding is a deliberate and calculated behavior where the driver knows the risk but ignores the danger. Fully 90% of all licensed drivers speed at some point in their driving career; 75% admit to committing this offense regularly. Consider this example: a pedestrian help me do my essay forster response out in front of a car. If the car is traveling at just 30 mph, petra de bruijn leiden university the driver brakes when the pedestrian is 45 feet away, there will be enough space in which to stop without hitting the pedestrian. Increase the vehicle speed by just 5 mph and the situation order 3003574 26 aug 2016 dramatically. At 35 mph, with the pedestrian 45 feet away and the driver braking at the same point, the car will be traveling at 18 mph when it hits the pedestrian. An impact at 18 mph can seriously injure or even kill negative effects globalization essay example pedestrian. Who are the bad drivers? They are young, middle-aged, and old; men and women; they help writing a birthday poem luxury cars, sports cars, SUVs and family cars. Almost every qualified driver I know admits to some type of risky driving behavior, most commonly speeding. Aggressive Drivers - As we've described, modern cars are manufactured to very safe standards, and the environment they're driven in is engineered to minimize get someone write my paper computers and thought injuries suffered during an accident. The most difficult area to change is aggressive driver behavior and selfish attitudes. A 1995 study by the Automobile Association in Great Britain found that 88% of the respondents reported order 3003574 26 aug 2016 least one of the behaviors listed below directed at them (in order of descending frequency): Aggressive tailgating Lights flashed at them because the other motorist was annoyed Aggressive or rude gestures Deliberate obstruction -- preventing them from moving their vehicle Verbal abuse Physical assault. The same group was then asked about aggressive behavior they had displayed towards other drivers. 40% indicated that they had never behaved aggressively towards another driver. A further 60% of the survey respondents admitted to one or more of the following behaviors (listed in order of descending frequency): Flashed lights at another motorist because they were annoyed with them Gave aggressive or rude gestures Gave verbal abuse Aggressively tailgated another motorist Deliberately obstructed or prevented another from moving their vehicle Physically assaulted another motorist (one positive response) These behaviors are probably under-reported, since most people are not willing to admit to the more serious actions, even if no penalty exists. The majority of these incidents happened during the daylight hours (70%), on a main road (not freeway or divided highway). NYS Police characterize aggressive driving by the following traffic violations: Excessive speed Frequent or unsafe lane changes Failure to signal Tailgating Failure to yield the right of way Disregarding traffic controls Impaired driving. The NYS State Police point out that there is a difference between aggressive driving and "road rage." Road Rage behaviors, such as using the vehicle as a weapon or physically assaulting a driver or their vehicle, are not aggressive driving. They are criminal offenses, and there are laws in place to address these violent crimes.